The market of making confectionaries (ειδη περιπτερου ), like numerous various other industries, has actually changed considerably in the last few years. Although the standard formulations have undertaken minor modifications, the manufacturing modern technologies have actually transformed considerably (this applies especially to the approaches of forming little items and tiles, along with their packaging).
At the start of this phase, it appears appropriate to mention only these modifications, yet a lot more on those later put on certain dishes.
Various teams of confectionery products require specific molding methods so that they can be wrapped and packaged in the most ideal way up for sale. Most likely the most effective technology was the pastry bar. These bars allow you to use economical techniques of production, product packaging and screen at the point of sale.
At the same time, there were noticeable renovations in the product packaging – both in the materials used and in the sealing techniques. Most of benches in order to make sure long service life, to safeguard against insect damage and contamination need protective packaging. We think about these consider separate phases.
We have actually already taken into consideration the manufacturing of chocolate, and therefore it is clear that chocolate and complicated lusters have a primarily fatty basis, their moisture material is very reduced (normally less than 1%), and also the active ingredients are not in liquid remedy.
In many confectionery processes, the liquifying capacity of sugar (sucrose) is taken into account independently or in mix with various other sugars, such as glucose syrup (corn syrup) as well as invert sugar. There are two main groups of sugar confectionery products: a) products in which sugar is entirely liquified, and b) products in which sugar is partially dissolved, and partially existing in the form of little strong crystals put on hold in solution. These items might be customized with various other ingredients (for example, milk and also fats). The first team consists of hard candy, difficult as well as soft milk desserts, toffee as well as most jelly sweets. The 2nd team consists of products such as fudge, fudge (fudge), marshmallows as well as nougat with a pronounced fine-crystalline structure.
Overview confectionery manufacturing modern technologies
Listed below we will certainly see that all the range of structures gotten is a result of using various technological processes and also formulations, every one of which need special approaches for the development of individual items. Here we take a look at basic innovation issues, and also see their particular usages in other areas of this book.
Smearing and cutting
The device is furnished with cooled down rolls, which permit you to feed the product directly from the tool, where it is prepared, to the plate developing tools. After molding as well as lamination, home plates are fed to an air conditioning tool, and after that to conventional reducing devices and spreaders. After that the products are polished.
Фирма SOLLICH GmbH, г. Бад-Зальцуфлен, Германия.
This is most likely the earliest approach of creating bars (tiles) and individual items from plastic items such as fudge, nougat as well as numerous pastes. A confectionery product in an ideal plastic state, determined by its moisture, fat web content or temperature level, is first fed to the rolls to acquire a plate of the called for thickness. This plate is after that fed to reducing devices to generate vast strips, which are then cut into narrow floor tiles or bars. Currently, the warm item is fed to cooled down rolls, permitting to obtain multilayer plates. The plates are continually cut into strips that go through the (” spreading equipment)” spreader “, after which the strips are cut into bars or small pieces. An example of such a process is the Sollich Conjug system (Fig. 19.1).
Casting or otsadka
This approach is used for the manufacturing of candies, fondant as well as jelly sweets, some sorts of milk sweets and fudge, marshmallows and other items that can be obtained in liquid type.
Some products in liquid kind might be formed at a temperature level of regarding 150 ° C in a metal mold whose surface is covered with a “lubricating substance”.
Pomadnye, želejnye candy, maršmellou.
These items are usually cast right into cells created in starch (see listed below the section “Fondant shells”). A more recent advancement is the automatic rainfall and extraction of fondant shells and also some other confectionery products using steel mold and mildews (Cadbury-Baker Perkins), along with the precipitation of caramel and toffee right into silicone mold and mildews (Baker Perkins). Silicone is a non-tacky material that has special properties and is resistant to fairly heats, regular for the manufacturing of caramel confectionery.
This technique applies almost specifically to candy caramel and some kinds of toffee. The normal flavored sweets, sugary foods with a filler and “toffee” are made.
The production concept is to cool the made syrup under controlled conditions until it gets to a pliable state. In this state, the item is transformed right into a sort of rope, fed to the stamps, on which the completed products (generally of a specific form or with a pattern) are acquired from it. The resulting products are promptly sent to the air conditioning closet and also covering machine.
To get some types of sugar as well as chewy sweets, a variant of this technique is utilized, in which the harness acquired in a similar method is fed to a cutting-wrapping maker, where with the help of high-speed round blades, small items are cut from it that pertained to the wrapping maker.
Extrusion as well as molding bars.
The principle of extrusion, applied in the manufacturing of many non-food products, has actually been effectively applied in the confectionery market. The application of this process to the production of different items– from soft materials such as marshmallows as well as fondant sugary foods to extremely plastic nougat and also milk chocolates– is defined in  In this situation, the material based on extrusion is fed to the outlet nozzles with the help of a number of rolls or augers. The nozzle opening account determines the form of the end product, and also lots of extruders are geared up with a number of nozzles that create harnesses that can be cut into bars or small items. In fig. 19.2 programs numerous rolls for extruders, as well as fig. 19.3 is a Wemer-Lehara extruder random sample with a device for removing small items from the hairs. In fig. 19.4 shows the design of the Weisert-Loser extruder for the extrusion of eating gum tissue as well as eating sweet.
The style of the NID bar extruder is a little various. The feeding is accomplished by grooved rollers in the same way as in other extruders, but the product to be formed is fed to a 2nd profile roller. The profiled surface area of the roll is covered with fluoroplastic to make certain easy separation of the material and is used to shape the bars right into the required form. The pins assist eliminate the harnesses onto the conveyor belt.
It is feasible to make multi-layer bars in which two layers are extruded at the same time, or bars with a body from another confectionery item. Extrusion functions well with various other constant production as well as glazing methods.
When extrusion confectionery need to observe specific preventative measures.
Temperature. The extrusion temperature level is of fundamental importance, especially when it comes to milk sweet as well as nougat, the consistency of which is very depending on temperature. Tiny variations in temperature level can bring about big changes in extrusion stress. For soft milk desserts, a temperature of 35 to 38 ° C is generally used, however much depends on the kind of item, as well as the exact temperature level.
Excursion conditions must be determined empirically. Low temperatures and high pressures trigger ko of extruder safety plugs.
Splitting up of fat … If fat divides during extrusion, this suggests poor emulsification. Renovation is achieved when an emulsifier (eg lecithin or glyceryl monostearate) is consisted of in the formulation.
Devastation after extrusion … After extrusion, some products lose their shape, and also the strip, which is nearly cylindrical in cross-section, after a short time on the strip may come to be visibly flatter. This is because of a number of factors:.
too high a moisture web content;.
It was not emulsified fat and may be also soft;.
the protein of any dairy products active ingredient is not appropriately spread;.
in fudge or pastes, no crystalline framework has formed or has been damaged by excessive mixing after crystal formation. This issue can be really refined, and also in continual fudge production, its appearance relies on the moment the crystallizing lipstick is added before extrusion. It is feasible to establish the optimal problems for a specific devices just experimentally. Companies focusing on the manufacturing of extrusion equipment have actually executed a big amount of research study in the layout of devices for the extrusion of confectionery items of various consistencies. For some products – such as gummies and chewing periodontal – the roll extruder is giving way to a multi-cavity screw (worm) extruder. These innovations are explained in other sections of the book.
The principle of panning is currently explained in Chapter 5. There are 2 kinds of sugar rolling – difficult as well as loose. With hard knurling, succeeding layers of powdered sugar as well as syrup are developed on the desired body (as an example, nuts) as well as dried with cozy air passing away between the applied layers. Loose knurling is performed in a similar way, however making use of cool technology. Soft shells are made use of (for example, pasta, jelly, soft milk filling), and the layer is made of sugar (or sugar) syrup as well as powdered sugar. After getting to the preferred dimension as well as weight of the finish, the sweets are partially dried as well as covered with polish. The process is fully mechanized, consisting of loading and unloading the containers, automated spraying of syrups (or delicious chocolate), and also control of drying or cooling air to the tanks.
Confectionery lipstick made from sugar, sugar or corn syrup and invert sugar is typically represented in English by the word “creme” (cream), however some standard items make use of the choice “lotion”, and in various countries it is called differently.
The fondant is prepared by liquifying sugar as well as glucose syrup (or invert sugar) in water and concentrating by steaming to a solution consisting of concerning 88% DM. At ambient temperature, this remedy is supersaturated with sugar as well as unpredictable, and if it is rapidly mixed and also cooled down, after that the excess sugar befalls of the solution in the form of little crystals. Hence, the fondant mass has a strong phase of sugar crystals put on hold in a fluid phase including a saturated option of “sugars”.
Without blending as well as cooling large crystals are created. Beating in itself provides disappointing results, given that a huge amount of latent heat of formation is released. If the whipped syrup is left warm, crystallization reduces and subsequent slow-moving air conditioning causes the development of large crystals. Fondant of good quality must be soft in consistency.
Initially, lipstick was prepared making use of only sugar, which was liquified in water and focused by boiling to about the degree of 88-90% ST. Because the solubility of sugar at normal temperature levels is only 67%, the syrup with a focus of 90% is extremely unsteady and also crystallizes upon fast cooling, “offering” huge crystals.
To conquer this drawback, an additive was used that caused the inversion of a part of the sugar and also boosted the overall solubility – this made it feasible to whip the syrup right into a fondant mass. Citric or tartaric acids or, extra preferably, tartar (tartaric acid) are utilized therefore additives. The formation of invert sugar from sugar is gone over in another phase, however right here we just note that such ingredients decay part of the sugar (sucrose), which is chemically a disaccharide, right into 2 monosaccharides, dextrose (glucose) and fructose. Fructose is a lot more soluble (regarding 80% at 20 ° C) than sucrose, and also its presence with dextrose permits the concentrated syrup to be whipped right into a lipstick.
This technique of application of the additive is very unstable, considering that the amount of invert sugar developed varies substantially depending upon the pureness of the sugar, the boiling time and the firmness of the water made use of. Finest results are gotten by adding to the sugar syrup a specific amount of invert sugar, ready independently.
Lipstick, made from sugar as well as invert sugar, has a granular framework and is very wonderful in taste (it is rarely made use of in modern-day confectionery manufacturing). Sugar (corn) syrup has actually changed invert sugar in lipstick formulations; it is less wonderful, and the presence of complex carbs manages the formation of crystals and offers an extra thick lipstick, which does not have a loose (crumbly) texture.